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MagyarOnline.net Fórumok >> MON 2002 - 2011 >> NHT - The Wallenberg connection
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 Törölt Nicknév2  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-08-06 09:51   
Kedves Judit!
Te már biztosan tudod ezt, de ideteszem, a mai ujságban (Helsingin Sanomat, Finnország legnagyobb példányszámban megjelenö napilapja) jelent meg:
" A lengyel hirügynökség PAP szerdai hire szerint az orosz ügyészségnek nincs szándékában a vádemelés a Szovjetunio titkosrendörsége az NKVD által 1940 ben Katyn erdejében elkövetett tömeggyilkosság miatt.Lengyelország maga kezdhet ez ügyben vizsgálatokat és Oroszország megigérte, hogy átadja saját vizsgálatainak anyagát a lengyeleknek.
Az orosz hatóságok szerint a büncselekmények elévültek. Lengyelország a tettet az emberiség elleni büntettnek tekinti, ami nem évül el.
Az NKVD ügynökei Sztálin parancsára kb. 22000 lengyel katonatisztet és értelmiségit gyilkoltak meg Katynban, Nyugat-Oroszországban 1940-ben.Tömeggyilkosságokat a mai Ukrajna területén Harkovban is elkövettek. A Szovjetunió a náci Németországot vádolta ezekkel a gyilkosságokkal és csak 1990-ben ismerte el a Szovjetunio a büncselekményt."


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 hunor  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-11 17:02   
Kedves Judit!

Szerintem lenne ra igeny, hiszen nem olvas mindenki tokeletesen angolul. A tobbi: megbeszeltuk, jo munkat hozza, es koszonom mindenki neveben is.

Udv,

Hunor

 
 Kopácsi  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-11 16:50   
Hunor, a cikket eddig még nem irtam meg magyarul, de ha gondolod, hogy lenne rá igány, akkor megteszem. És persze ez a forum lesz az első ahova fölteszem, jó?

 
 hunor  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-11 16:37   
Kedves Kopacsi Judit,

nekem is lenne egy keresem - ha megirtad a cikket magyarul is, kerlek, tedd be azt is, hiszen nem mindegyik MON olvaso erti meg teljesen angolul.

Koszonom elore is,
Udv,

Hunor

 
 Törölt Nicknév2  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-11 15:37   
Az alábbi link a nemzetközi Raoul Wallenberg foundation linkje. Küldd el nekik a cikkedet!
http://www.raoul-wallenberg.org.ar/english/walldefauing.htm
Kiváncsi vagyok a visszahngra.
szeretettel üdvözöl:Etelka

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 Kopácsi  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-07 20:12   
Fogalmam sincs. Érdekes módón nem sokan harapnak rá, pedig szerintem ez a leglogikusabb következtetés eddig.
 
 Törölt Nicknév2  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-07 09:02   
Vajon a svédek látták-e ezt a cikket??
Etelka
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 Kopácsi  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-05 17:40   
Etelka, elnézést, hogy nem reagáltam leveledre eddig. A cikknek van viszhangja, többen is érdeklödtek felöle. Állitólag a Nw Yorki Wallenberg társaságot is érdekli a dolog. Majd meglássuk.
 
 Törölt Nicknév2  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-05-05 16:47   
Vajon milyen visszhangja volt ennek a cikknek? Én azonnal irtam neked privát, sajnos nem válaszoltál, talán nem kaptad meg?
Sok üdvözlettel: Etelka
- aki gyerekkorában ismerte Wallenberget Budapeströl

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 Kopácsi  módosítás |   válasz erre |   profil |  2004-01-11 02:44   
Wallenberg - The last victim of the Katyn massacre

By

Judith Kopácsi Gelberger



Russian admission: Wallenberg was killed on Stalin’s order

Raoul Wallenberg was a Swedish diplomat stationed in Budapest who, working for the U.S. War Refugee Board, saved thousands of Hungarian Jews from the Nazis in the final days of World War II, and was last seen being taken into custody by the Russians on 17 January 1945. Wallenberg’s fate remained a mystery for over 55 years until the end of 2000, when within two months the Kremlin commission investigating the case of Raoul Wallenberg admitted that “he was shot in the KGB prison in Moscow”, and issued a statement that “Wallenberg was a victim of cynical Soviet suspicion and Stalin’s police state and declares Wallenberg and his driver, Vilmos Langfelder, innocent of all spying charges.”
But the statement still doesn’t explain how or why the two of them died. Leonid Troshin, spokesperson for the Russian prosecutor-general’s office, blames it on a cover up and said, “All documents related to Wallenberg disappeared. The archives were simply purged and all files were destroyed to hide the evidence.” The current Russian government maintains that “it is impossible to learn exactly how and why Wallenberg and his driver died, but the ‘repressions of the facts’ suggest that their fate was similar to others who were executed on Stalin’s order.”

The real reason for Wallenberg’s death
Facts are beginning to emerge from Hungary pointing to the real reason for this tragedy. Raoul Wallenberg was killed to help cover up the 1940 Soviet massacre of the Polish officers in the Katyn forest. The massacre at Katyn was blamed on the Germans and used as part of the anti-Nazi propaganda by both the Soviet Union and its Western Allies. It took until 13 April 1990 for Russia to own up to this war crime. During Wallenberg’s time in Hungary, in the latter days of WW II, he received documents incriminating the Soviet Union in the massacre. At the time of Wallenberg’s disappearance in 1945, the Soviets were very much intent on the cover-up, to the point that Stalin ordered that anyone who could reveal the truth about the massacre be “liquidated”.

The Katyn massacre
The second, secret protocol of the Hitler-Stalin Non-aggression Pact of 23 August 1939 provided for the partition of Poland, dividing it between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. While the Germans invaded Poland, in defiance of the British and French, and started the Second World War on 1 September 1939, the Soviets did not attack the Poles until 6:00 AM, 17 September 1939. Although the Poles were by then already collapsing under the weight of the German attack, Polish Army units in the East fought and in a few cases won some battles against the advancing Red Army. Against such overwhelming military odds, though, there obviously could be only one result, and Poland surrendered on 27 September 1939.

Between September-October 1939, the Soviets captured approximately 15,000 Polish officers and cadets. Many of them were reservists who in civilian life were professionals such as doctors, lawyers and college professors. They were incarcerated in three internment camps: Kozielsk (southwest of Moscow), Ostashkov (between Moscow and Leningrad), and Starobielsk (southeast of Kharkov).

Initially, and during the winter of 1939-40, the NKVD, the precursor of the KGB, appeared to be trying to convert the Poles to Stalinist Communism. However, the interrogation and indoctrination sessions were too crude, dogmatic, and alien for most of the loyal, sophisticated Poles to accept. Eventually, the NKVD separated a few hundred potential collaborators from their comrades. Then, during the spring of 1940, having been given food and assurances that they were to be sent home, the Poles were shipped out by train, in groups of a hundred or so at a time. Until spring 1940, some of these officers' families had been corresponding with them. Thereafter, the families' mail was returned as undeliverable. Inquiries about the missing officer prisoners from the Polish Government-in-Exile in London and from the British government went unanswered by the Soviet government.

The destinations of most of these prisoners were three separate killing sites. Katyn was the terminus for the Kozielsk inmates. The other points were similarly railheads, near Kalinin for the Ostashkov prisoners and near Kharkov for the Starobielsk captives. The locations of these other mass graves have only been verified in 1992.

Following the German invasion of the USSR on 22 June 1941, the Polish government-in-exile in London requested its new Soviet ally to reveal the whereabouts and condition of the missing officers and cadets. Stalin’s response to this was that perhaps they had escaped to Manchuria! Then, on 13 April 1943, Radio Berlin announced the discovery of a mass grave at the Russian forest village of Katyn. The grave contained the bodies of thousands of Polish officers who had been murdered, it stated, by the Soviet NKVD in the spring of 1940. In response, the Soviets turned the tables and accused the Germans of the crime, suddenly “remembering’’ that while retreating from the Germans they had left behind the Polish officers who, they said, “were then caught by the Germans and shot in the fall of 1941.”

When the Polish government-in-exile in London asked the International Red Cross to investigate, the Soviet Union broke diplomatic relations with the exiles and objected to any investigation. But other international experts, including those from neutral Switzerland, as well as the Polish Red Cross, established beyond any doubt the time of the execution -- between 4 April and 13 May 1940. Evidence found in the pockets of the victims -- such as diaries, unsent letters and Soviet newspapers -- and forensic tests confirmed the date. In all, 4,143 bodies were positively identified. However, timing of the German disclosure came after the victorious battle of Stalingrad. Britain and the U.S. took the Soviet side on this issue, being grateful to their new ally for taking the brunt of the German aggression and preferring to turn a blind eye.

The Katyn massacre documents in Hungary
Mr. Béla Varga, a speaker of the Hungarian Parliament from 1945 to 1947, was the first person that introduced the possible connection between the Katyn massacre and Wallenberg. He lived in exile in the U.S.A. from 1947 until 1991, when he returned to Hungary. He died in Budapest, Hungary, in 1995. The interview with him appeared in 1980 in the Új Látóhatár (New Horizon), Radio Free Europe’s Hungarian language literary magazine, published in West Germany.

Béla Varga was a Catholic priest and a Small Holder Party member of the Hungarian Parliament during World War II. During this time, he was the liaison between the Hungarian government and the Polish refugees living in Hungary. In the interview he states, “The Soviet Union was so intent on a cover-up of the Katyn massacre that Stalin ordered the liquidation of anyone with compromising information about the massacre”.

From the fall of 1939 the approximately 200,000 Polish soldiers and civilians, who crossed the Hungarian border and evaded German capture were treated very well by the Hungarian people. The first groups of refugees were trained soldiers, many of them pilots. Approximately 55,000 of them were helped to escape through Italy to France, where they formed a Polish Army fighting against the Nazis. Many of them helped to defend London later on. It was also an open secret that the Polish underground army, called Home Army, maintained direct connections with the Polish government-in-exile in London through the Polish refugees staying in Hungary.

In 1943 when information about the discovery of mass graves of Polish officers in the Katyn forests came to light, the Polish government-in-exile in London was frantic for information. They requested Mr. Varga to gather and pass on as much information as possible to them about the subject and supplied him with almost 15,000 names of Polish officers who were missing. Mr. Varga collected the findings of international forensic experts, such as the ones from Switzerland, the Polish Red Cross, and Ferenc Orsós, a Hungarian professor of forensic science. These experts established beyond any doubt the time of the execution -- between 4 April and 13 May 1940 thus pointing a finger directly to the Russians. Mr. Varga gave the majority of the documents to the Polish officers who took them to London, but some of the most important ones he delivered personally to Switzerland. The remaining documents, along with money, were placed in the vaults of the Hitelbank located in Budapest.

The Wallenberg connection
When the Germans invaded Hungary in 19 March 1944, Per Anger, the second secretary at the Swedish Embassy in Budapest began issuing provisional passports for Jews with relatives or business associates in Sweden. The passport was a kind of travel document that was given to Swedish citizens who had lost their real passports, while abroad. But the Swedish legation at this time acted on behalf of seven countries in Hungary and simultaneously the stream of people seeking help from the Swedes increased. This brought about the legation's request for reinforcements. At the same time negotiations were taking place between the American War Refugee Board (WRB), the Swedish Foreign Department and the World Jewish Congress regarding sending a person to Hungary with a mission to lead the rescue of Hungary's Jews.
It was Raoul Wallenberg who was appointed to be this person and was given the status of legation secretary in Budapest. Wallenberg was reporting to Iver C. Olsen, who was not only the representative of the War Refugee Board in Stockholm but in addition to his WRB functions, Olsen represented the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) - precursor of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - in Sweden. This fact might have later piqued Kremlin suspicion, especially since we now know that Soviet agents made "extensive penetrations of OSS" almost from the very moment the latter was organized.
Wallenberg arrived in Budapest on 9 July 1944; four months after the Germans invaded Hungary and imposed their sharply anti-Semitic policy. At the Hungarian border, he saw boxcars crowded with Jews bound for what the Germans called "labour camps." By August, when secret information of the horrible truth about the extermination camps reached Hungary, Wallenberg had not only the approval of the Hungarian Regent, Admiral Horthy , but his full co-operation in his efforts to save the Jews in Budapest. Wallenberg, spending covertly supplied American funds and using Swedish diplomatic tools, issued "certificates of protection" with the emblem of the Swedish crown. He moved his charges into buildings he bought or rented and flew the Swedish flag over them for protection. In October after the Germans arrested Regent Horthy for trying to negotiate a separate peace with the Russians, Wallenberg joined other neutral diplomats such as Switzerland's to persuade the new, German-backed puppet Nazi Hungarian regime to set up an "international ghetto" for 33,000 Jews. Those Polish refugees who could manage to avoid the clutches of the Gestapo also found safe haven in the “Swedish houses.” It is more than likely that the Polish refugees felt that Wallenberg was the only person who could be trusted with their documents. The information within these documents included not only details of the Katyn massacre, but contained important diplomatic papers proving that the Hungarian government had been directly involved providing sanctuary and assistance for the Polish refugees.

Declassified files, some of which the Central Intelligence Agency released to U.S. News under the Freedom of Information Act in 1990, and scores of interviews with American, Russian and European sources show conclusively that Wallenberg was a valued U.S. intelligence asset. President Franklin Roosevelt approved his appointment and his mission not only to save Jews but also to provide the U.S. with access to anti-Nazi resistance forces trying to break up Budapest's alliance with Berlin. For the Office of Strategic Services, Wallenberg was probably the only reliable man in wartime Budapest. "OSS did not have an active penetration team in Hungary at war's end," recalls James McCargar, an intelligence specialist at the U.S. Embassy in Budapest in 1946. Under such circumstances, Wallenberg was a key resource for the OSS. He could exchange coded messages via Stockholm, use the diplomatic pouch - sent as often as every second day - and work with resistance leaders.

One of those resistance leaders was Captain Zoltán Mikó, a Hungarian army officer, active in the anti-Nazi resistance. Wallenberg sought his help on numerous occasions, including procuring food and arranging for its delivery to the Swedish houses. It was Christmas Eve of 1944 when Captain Mikó received an urgent request from Wallenberg. By then the Red Army surrounded Budapest and as the siege seemed inevitable Wallenberg needed immediate help with the relocation of the embassy’s assets and files to a safe place. Amongst the files were important documents about secret negotiations between the Hungarian and the British governments that were conducted through the Swedish embassy.

The Swedish Embassy had already rented some safes in the vaults of The Hungarian National Bank, known to be fire and bombproof. Other embassies used those safes within the vaults to keep their valuables and documents as well, and sentries provided by the Hungarian Army protected them. By the time Captain Mikó arrived at the Embassy the documents were already placed in a car. Wallenberg and Mikó drove ahead in another car, and as soon as they placed the documents in the vaults they parted company .

The Soviet occupation
When the Germans gave up Budapest by mid January 1945, they had no time to take anything with them. The Russians looted the banks and without much ado blew up the safes. Within days Raoul Wallenberg, Mr. Varga, Captain Mikó and his adjunct, Lieutenant Bondor, were arrested.

Mr. Varga was taken to Kispest, to a Russian military prison where the NKVD interrogated him about his knowledge of the Katyn massacres. A kindly interpreter who coached him to deny all knowledge of the Katyn massacres saved his life. The interpreter also confided that there was a direct order from Stalin “to kill anyone even remotely aware of the Katyn massacres.”

The NKVD arrested Lieutenant Bondor on 13 February 1945 just a few short days after he managed to escape from the Gestapo. He claimed that the only difference between the two organizations was, that while the Gestapo questioned him about his connections to Captain Mikó, who, for wanting to save Budapest from total destruction, was accused of being a traitor, the NKVD kept interrogating him about the connection between Mikó and Raoul Wallenberg. Bondor said that as far as he knew Mikó was helping Wallenberg to obtain food and medication, and it was Bondor who provided armed personnel for the trucks delivering the goods to the safe houses. But the interrogators only wanted to know about “the documents”. Since Bondor had no idea what documents they had in mind, he couldn’t provide a satisfactory answer. On one occasion he was asked directly, what did he know about Katyn? Bondor’s answer probably saved his life. He said that he suspected that the Germans were behind the massacres, and that they tried to whitewash the atrocities by blaming the Russians. Then he was shown about half a dozen photographs and he was requested to name the people in them. When Bondor claimed that he never met any of them, the interrogators named them. They all had Polish names. However, the Russians never said what the connection was between the Poles, Wallenberg and Captain Mikó. As far as Bondor was concerned, the Russians believed that Wallenberg was a spy and Mikó and Bondor were his accomplices.

The trial of Captain Mikó and Lieutenant Bondor took place on 9 July 1945 in a Rumanian town, Constanza. Both of them were sentenced to death by a firing squad for “training and using spies, including some good intentioned, innocent people, and coercing them to hinder the movement of the Red Army.” After the sentencing they were lead to the cells set up for people on death row, where Mikó told Bondor about the connection between Wallenberg and the documents of the Katyn massacres. According to Mikó, Wallenberg was counting on the Americans to save him.

Similarities between Wallenberg’s and Mikó’s disappearance
The strong parallels in the fate of Wallenberg and Captain Mikó reveal another piece of the jigsaw puzzle. Both Wallenberg and Mikó established the initial contact with Soviet forces during the final battle for Budapest in an attempt to benefit others. Wallenberg left Budapest on 17 January 1945 to meet Marshall Malinovisky, the head of the Soviet occupation forces headquartered in the provincial capital city of Debrecen, to deliver a relief plan worked out by the Swedish Embassy for the Jewish survivors of Budapest. In the final days of January 1945, the Minister of Defence, stationed in the liberated part of Hungary, sent Mikó to negotiate the surrender of Budapest by helping the Russian forces enter the city. The city was in danger of total destruction due to the tenacity of defence put up by the German Army and its sympathisers. In both cases the men were held captive and never returned.

The details of Wallenberg’s reception by the Soviets are sketchy. What is known is that the Soviet command in Budapest was very friendly and co-operative, granting him permission to leave the city to meet with Marshall Malinovisky. The next piece of information has him in Moscow, being treated courteously and taken on a tour of the city sights. Then without warning he is arrested and locked in the infamous Lubyanka Prison. Mikó was also first received with the utmost courtesy and for a week his opinion was sought about the current state of the Hungarian military. Then without any explanation his movement was curtailed and he was placed under arrest. Wallenberg was in Soviet custody on 17 January 1945, before Captain Mikó reported at the Soviet military headquarters. By that time the Russians must have gathered information from both Wallenberg and the Polish officers, about Mikó’s role in placing the Katyn documents in the vaults of the National Bank. Mikó was already with the NKVD, when a group of detectives went to his home. They seemed genuinely surprised to hear that Mikó had already reported to the Russians. More than likely this group was already in the midst of investigating the relationship between Wallenberg and Mikó.

The Russians categorically denied any information about both Wallenberg and Mikó. In Wallenberg’s case not even international pressure helped. It was only when Gorbachev came to power that the Soviets finally admitted that they were responsible for Wallenberg’s disappearance, but even then did not give any reasons. Until 1990 the Russians denied to the Hungarian authorities that they ever held Mikó a prisoner. This was surprising, given that the post-war Minister of Defence for Hungary authorized Mikó to negotiate with the Russians, and most of the captain’s close friends and relatives knew that Mikó had reported to the Soviet military headquarters at the end of January 1945.

Ongoing disinformation about Wallenberg’s fate and the Katyn massacres
In the past 55 years the Soviets perpetrated a vast deception about the Wallenberg case. In the Stalinist epoch, the deception moved through four contradictory stages: at first, the Kremlin acknowledged that he was in Soviet hands, but did not admit to either the kidnapping of the Swedish diplomat nor to his incarceration in the Lubyanka prison; two years later, the Soviets claimed that Wallenberg was totally unknown to Soviet authorities. The third stage came a decade later, during the Khrushchev era, when the Soviets acknowledged Wallenberg’s imprisonment at Lubyanka and asserted that he had died of a heart attack in 1947. Stage three was to last nearly a quarter of a century, until it was replaced by the fourth stage, during the high point of the glasnost era. The Soviets maintained the deception’s main thesis: Wallenberg was dead, but how his death occurred remained a mystery.

Although the Russian government released documents in 1992 proving that the Soviet Politburo and the KNVD were responsible for the Katyn massacre and the cover-up, the culture of covering this truth remained. For instance in the summer of 1998, when a US corporation sponsored an exhibit of World War II photographs from the Russian Army Museum at the Ronald Reagan Building in downtown Washington, incredibly, in a souvenir program sold at the exhibit, the Russian exhibitors repeated the Soviet lie that the Nazis, not the NKVD, had murdered Polish prisoners at Katyn.

While a group of Polish members of parliament tried to obtain an official acknowledgment that the Soviet government had engaged in genocide, in the fall of 1998 Procurator General Yuri Chayka sent a letter to Poland's minister of justice demanding an official inquiry into the deaths of Russian soldiers captured during the Polish-Soviet war of 1919-1921. The letter asserted that 83,500 internees had died "in Polish concentration camps as a result of cruel and inhuman conditions." In Warsaw in the early 1990s it was rumoured that Gorbachev had ordered his staff to find a "counterbalance" to Katyn. Poland officially rejected the allegation, but not before offering to cooperate in a joint search of Polish and Russian archives for additional information. The offer was not accepted.

Why were the Soviets so intent to cover up the Katyn massacres?
The incident was a criminal act of historic proportions and enduring political implications. This mass shootings of prisoners of war during World War II did not occur in the heat of battle but was a cold-blooded act of political murder. The victims were Polish officers, soldiers, and civilians captured by the Red Army after it invaded eastern Poland in September 1939. Strictly speaking, even the Polish servicemen were not POWs. The USSR had not declared war, and the Polish commander in chief had ordered his troops not to engage Soviet forces. Initiating the destruction of a nation by exterminating its leadership classes is consistent with the standard definition of "genocide."

The Soviet Union was never officially indicted or condemned for the Katyn massacre. For 50 years, the Soviet Union concealed the truth. The massacre at Katyn was blamed on the Germans and used as part of the anti-Nazi propaganda by both the Soviet Union and its Western Allies. Katyn was a forbidden topic in post-war Poland and all other allies of the Soviet Union. Censors suppressed all references to it. Even mentioning the atrocity meant risking reprisal. At the time of Wallenberg’s disappearance in 1945, the Soviets were very much intent on the cover-up, to the point that Stalin ordered the death of anyone who could reveal the truth about the massacre. From the point of view of the paranoid leaders of the Soviet Union, it made perfect sense to kill Raoul Wallenberg as part of the cover-up of the 1940 Soviet massacre of the Polish officers in the Katyn forest. Thus Wallenberg became one of the last victims of the Katyn massacres.


 
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